Seventh GF Summer School 2020-2021

GF Summer School logo

Singapore & Online
26th July – 6th August 2021


Grammatical Framework (GF) is a grammar formalism and a programming language for multilingual computational grammars. It is based on the idea of a shared abstract syntax and mappings between the abstract syntax and concrete languages. GF has hundreds of users all over the world.

The GF Resource Grammar Library (RGL) implements the morphology (inflection) and basic syntax (phrase structure) of more than 30 languages: Afrikaans, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hindi, Interlingua, Japanese, Italian, Latvian, Maltese, Mongolian, Nepali, Norwegian bokmål, Nynorsk, Persian, Polish, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Sindhi, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, and Urdu. These resources are freely available as open-source software.

We are constantly welcoming new languages, especially from new language families. Learn more at the RGL status page. The summer school is an excellent place to get started with a new language.

A recent Google TechTalk gives an overview of the GF technology and its many applications:

You will find the GF book a very good companion to your studies (available also as an e-book). However, the book is not a requirement for successful participation in the summer school.


Register to the summer school with this form. Information about fees will be updated soon.

Special theme

The summer school is co-organised by Singapore Management University's Centre for Computational Law. The centre lies at the intersection of four disciplines of computer science:

  1. Logical formalisation of legal rules and contract specifications (prior art includes MIREL, CoSoDIS, FLACOS, SBVR, LegalRuleML)
  2. Formal verification, specification languages, and model checking (prior art includes Z3, Alloy, TLA+, PAT, UPPAAL)
  3. Computational linguistics and multilingual natural language generation (prior art includes GF)
  4. Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (prior art includes Prolog, Datalog, F-Logic, Flora-2, RDF, RIF, N3, SPARQL)

The special theme is present in two ways:

Despite the special theme, the summer school is pefectly suitable for a student who is interested in more traditional grammar engineering.

Teachers and invited speakers (to be updated)

Name Affiliation Topic
Aarne Ranta University of Gothenburg
Digital Grammars
GF tutorial;
Inari Listenmaa Singapore Management University
Digital Grammars
GF tutorial;
Denny Vrandečić Wikimedia Abstract Wikipedia
Jan Frederik Schaefer Friedrich–Alexander University Prototyping natural language understanding with GF: Adding Semantics and Inference
John J. Camilleri Digital Grammars Linearisation-only PGF
Krasimir Angelov Chalmers Univ. of Technology
Digital Grammars
Parsing, lexicons, lexical semantics, sense disambiguation
Meng Wong Singapore Management University
Controlled Natural Language in computational law
Michal Měchura Masaryk University Re-inventing the phrasebook with rule-based language technology
Warrick Macmillan University of Gothenburg Formal languages in GF


The summer school will take place in Singapore, home to Singapore Management University.

Because of the Covid-19 pandemic, it is possible to participate in the summer school fully online. Read more in Logistics.


We aim to make the summer school as smooth as possible for people on different time zones.

Other than the hybrid online/offline nature, the program of the summer school will be like in the previous years. The first week is a GF tutorial, and the second week is more specialised tracks.

Once we know who is planning to attend and from which time zones, we can make a more concrete schedule. If there is interest, some redundancy might also be scheduled, e.g. two instances of the same lecture on different time zones. This way, more people can attend the lectures synchronously and ask questions.

Please indicate your interest in the Registration form.


Singapore Management University - School of Law and School of Information Systems


The GF mailing list is a great place to ask about anything GF, including the summer school. If you have a more specific question, you can contact us directly:

Previous GF summer schools