Seventh GF Summer School 2021

GF Summer School logo

Singapore & Online
26th July – 6th August 2021


Grammatical Framework (GF) is a grammar formalism and a programming language for multilingual computational grammars. It is based on the idea of a shared abstract syntax and mappings between the abstract syntax and concrete languages. GF has hundreds of users all over the world.

The GF Resource Grammar Library (RGL) implements the morphology (inflection) and basic syntax (phrase structure) of more than 30 languages: Afrikaans, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hindi, Interlingua, Japanese, Italian, Latvian, Maltese, Mongolian, Nepali, Norwegian bokmål, Nynorsk, Persian, Polish, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Sindhi, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, and Urdu. These resources are freely available as open-source software.

We are constantly welcoming new languages, especially from new language families. Learn more at the RGL status page. The summer school is an excellent place to get started with a new language.

A recent Google TechTalk gives an overview of the GF technology and its many applications:

You will find the GF book a very good companion to your studies (available also as an e-book). However, the book is not a requirement for successful participation in the summer school.


Register from the official SMU website. On the linked page, there is a link to registration at the top right of the page.

Participation fee for two weeks will be 200 SGD, and 120 SGD for a single week. This applies for both online and offline participation. If you want to apply for a participation grant, please contact the organisers.

Special themes

Computational law

The summer school is co-organised by Singapore Management University's Centre for Computational Law. The interests of the research centre lie at the intersection of logical formalisation, knowledge representation and natural language generation.

Abstract Wikipedia

Our second theme is Abstract Wikipedia: an effort in multilingual natural language generation at a large scale, targeting a diverse set of languages and language families.

The special themes are present in two ways:

The summer school is pefectly suitable for a student who is interested in other aspects of grammar engineering.


All times are indicated in Singapore time.

Week 1 (July 26–30): Introduction to GF and multilingual grammar programming

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
9am–12pm: Lectures in class (also streamed online) Inari Listenmaa. A tour of the GF Ecosystem.
Tutorial: small grammars in GF binder.
Inari Listenmaa. Core linguistic constructions.
Tutorial: mini resource grammar.
Inari Listenmaa. Systematic overview of GF concepts.
Extended mini resource grammar.
Inari Listenmaa. Full resource grammar and its API.
WordNet in GF.
Inari Listenmaa. Design and implementation of application grammars.
Hands-on with an application grammar.
1–5pm: Hands‑on in class Installing GF, building small grammars Starting mini resource in GF shell Work on projects.
4-5pm: Using GF from Python.
Work on projects.
4-5pm: Testing grammars.
Participant presentations: plans for summer school projects
Online program 8pm:
Aarne Ranta. Repeat of morning lecture.

Virtual hands-on.
Denny Vrandečić. Abstract Wikipedia.

Virtual hands-on
Virtual hands-on Virtual hands-on Virtual participant presentations

Week 2 (August 2-6): Advanced work in specialised tracks

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
10am–12pm: Lectures in class (also streamed online) Meng Wong. CNL in computational law
Inari Listenmaa. Generalising agreement Inari Listenmaa. GF in the context of different grammar formalisms Inari Listenmaa. Gentle introduction to PGF.
Inari Listenmaa. Optimising GF grammars.
Participant presentations
1⁠–⁠4pm: Hands‑on in class Work on projects Work on projects Work on projects Work on projects
(Virtual) participant presentations
Online program (Virtual hands-on during breaks between talks and after the last talk) 4pm:
Krasimir Angelov.The Lexical Library: Multilingual WordNet, VerbNet and Corpora in GF.

Laurette Marais.
GF application grammars in a resource scarce environment.

Jan Frederik Schaefer. Prototyping natural language understanding with GF.

Krasimir Angelov.
Meet the Grammarian: Why or do we need to write application grammars?

Laurette Pretorius & Laurette Marais. Zulu resource grammar.

Leonel Figueiredo de Alencar. Nheengatu grammar.

Ayesha Zafar. Urdu grammar.

Aarne Ranta. GF⁠–⁠UD and applications.

Arianna Masciolini. Concept alignment.

Michal Měchura. Re‑inventing the phrasebook with rule‑based language technology.

Alexandre Rademaker. HPSG Portuguese Grammar based on the grammar MATRIX.
John Camilleri. Linearisation-only PGF.

Žygimantas Medelis. Accelerated Text: a low code data to text platform and how it works with GF.

Panel discussion. GF dreams: ideas for the future of GF

Teachers and invited speakers

Name Affiliation Topic
Aarne Ranta University of Gothenburg
Digital Grammars
GF tutorial, GF-UD
Alexandre Rademaker IBM Research HPSG Portuguese Grammar based on the grammar MATRIX
Arianna Masciolini Digital Grammars Concept alignment for multilingual machine translation
Denny Vrandečić Wikimedia Abstract Wikipedia
Inari Listenmaa Singapore Management University
Digital Grammars
GF tutorial;
Jan Frederik Schaefer Friedrich–Alexander University Prototyping natural language understanding with GF: Adding Semantics and Inference
John J. Camilleri Digital Grammars Linearisation-only PGF
Krasimir Angelov Chalmers Univ. of Technology
Digital Grammars
Application grammars, lexical semantics, sense disambiguation
Laurette Marais Meraka Institute Application grammars in resource scarce environment;
Zulu resource grammar
Laurette Pretorius University of South Africa Zulu resource grammar
Leonel Figueiredo de Alencar Federal University of Ceará Nheengatu grammar
Meng Wong Singapore Management University
Controlled Natural Language in computational law
Michal Měchura Masaryk University Re-inventing the phrasebook with rule-based language technology
Žygimantas Medelis Tokenmill Accelerated Text: a low code data to text platform and how it works with GF


The summer school will take place in Singapore, home to Singapore Management University.

Because of the Covid-19 pandemic, it is possible to participate in the summer school fully online. Read more in Logistics.


We aim to make the summer school as smooth as possible for people on different time zones.

Other than the hybrid online/offline nature, the program of the summer school will be like in the previous years. The first week is a GF tutorial, and the second week is more specialised tracks.

Duplicate talks

The first week's talks will be given to a live audience in Singapore at 9-12 SGT, and streamed live—if you're in Asia, or otherwise awake at this time, you can follow them live and ask questions on Zoom.

On the first day of the summer school, Aarne Ranta will give a duplicate of the morning talk at 20 SGT, which is 14 CEST -- this is afternoon in Europe and Africa, and morning in most of the Americas. We will evaluate the format after the first lecture and decide if and how to do rest of the duplicate talks. If you would like to participate, but can't make it on the first day, please contact the organisers.


The GF mailing list is a great place to ask about anything GF, including the summer school. If you have a more specific question, you can contact us directly:

Administrative & Registration Matters:

Ms Raven Zhang (Centre Administrator at CCLAW)
HP: 96458215

Ms Regina Cheong (Researcher at CCLAW)
HP: 81888420

Summer School Content & Technical Information:

Dr Inari Listenmaa
HP: 82119525

Mr Tristan Koh
HP: 96219123

Previous GF summer schools